Around one million people visit A&E each year following a head injury. While the majority of these people will experience no lasting effects, many others will be left with a TBI that can have devastating and lifelong effects.


TBI is an injury to the brain caused by a trauma to the head (head injury). There are many possible causes, including road traffic accidents, assaults, falls and accidents at home or at work.


A brief period of unconsciousness, or just feeling sick and dizzy, may result from a person banging their head getting into the car, walking into the top of a low door way, or slipping over in the street. It is estimated that 75-80% of all head injuries fall into this category.


A moderate head injury is defined as loss of consciousness for between 15 minutes and six hours, or a period of post-traumatic amnesia of up to 24 hours. The patient can be kept in hospital overnight for observation, and then discharged if there are no further obvious medical injuries. Patients with moderate head injury are likely to suffer from a number of residual symptoms.


Severe head injury is usually defined as being a condition where the patient has been in an unconscious state for six hours or more, or a post-traumatic amnesia of 24 hours or more. These patients are likely to be hospitalised and receive rehabilitation once the acute phase has passed. Depending on the length of time in coma, these patients tend to have more serious physical deficits. (Headway. 2018)


Survivors of TBI’s are often left with life-long cognitive, physical, sensory, behavioural or emotional consequences that impact on every aspect of their lives and the lives of their loved ones. Recovery and the benefits of rehabilitation are unpredictable, but therapy and the correct support will reduce the long-term consequences for individuals and their families.


Rehabilitation can be provided in the community, in rehabilitation units or as an out-patient and should be provided by a skilled and experienced multi-disciplinary team (MDT). The MDT will normally consist of therapists, doctors, nurses and support staff. In some cases, survivors may require placement in suitable residential or nursing homes and receive continuing NHS healthcare funding.